The following are the six elements of micromessages and examples.
- Verbal: What is said
Example: Consistently using generic “he” or “man” to represent both men and women.
- Para-verbal: How it is said
Example: Using a more enthusiastic tone of voice in response to boys.
- Non-verbal: Body language
Example: Avoiding eye contact with female or male students or only looking at male or female students.
- Contextual: Who or what else is present (culture, artifacts, etc.)
Example: Only using males as examples of scientists.
- Omission: What is not said or not done
Example: Failing to offer female students opportunities to be team leaders.
- Praise and criticism: Feedback messages
Example: Disciplining boys more than girls for similar behavior.